Colon cancer is the most common type of cancer that affects the colon. It develops in the colon (also called the large intestine) and is usually a slow-growing cancer that does not respond to treatment with chemotherapy or other radical treatments. Common symptoms of colon cancer include anemia, abdominal pain, constipation, chronic diarrhea, and nausea. There are many factors that can increase a person’s risk for developing colon cancer, including: having a family history of colon cancer; obesity; frequent diarrhea; and having the wrong diet. There are a variety of ways to screen for colon cancer, but the best way is through an endoscopy. This is a procedure that uses a tube that is inserted into the body and looks like a camera lens. An endoscope is able to detect tumors by locating the end at which the camera lens points. If there is a tumor, the endoscope will push it outward using the force of gravity. Tumors that are not malignant (not yet starting to grow) can be detected through more traditional methods, such as a colposcopy. Other than endoscopy, another common tool used to detect colon cancer symptoms is sigmoidoscopy. In this procedure, a thin flexible tube called a sigmoidoscope is inserted through a small hole in the patient’s anus. The sigmoidoscope will then stick out its other end into the abdominal cavity. It looks like an upside-down globe. A doctor can also detect colon cancer through a colonoscopy and x-ray. These two tests will both help the doctor to determine if there is a tumor or masses growing in the colon. A CT scan can also be used to determine whether or not a tumor is present, as well as a PET scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These two tests will help determine if the growth is malignant, which means it could turn into colon cancer. When a tumor or mass in the colon is suspected, surgery is often recommended. Although this is the preferred method, it also has its share of problems. For one, there is not always a way to tell if the surgery will succeed. There is also a chance that what is colon cancer and its symptoms will recur, meaning the same thing is likely to happen again soon after surgery. There are a variety of treatments for colon cancer. Doctors will usually prescribe medication for those suffering from mild cases. This will make sure that the tumor itself does not spread to other areas of the body. Medications that fight off the tumor will also be prescribed. A person who suffers from colon cancer symptoms will be given medications until all of them are gone. If what is colon cancer and its symptoms is left untreated, it could potentially cause death.